[May 6, 1886 (New York Times)]
Rioting and Bloodshed in the Streets of Chicago.
Police mowed down with dynamite
Strikers killed with volleys from revolvers.
The slaughter following an anarchist meeting-twelve policemen dead or dying – the number of killed or injured civilians unknown but very large – the bravery of the police force.
Chicago, May 4 – The villainous teachings of the Anarchists bore bloody fruit in Chicago tonight, and before daylight at least a dozen stalwart men will have laid down their lives as a tribute to the doctrine of Herr Johann Most. There had been skimishes all day between the police and various sections of the mob which had no head and no organization. In every instance the police won. In the afternoon a handbill, printed in German and English called upon “workingmen” to meet at Des Plaines and Randolph streets this evening “Good speakers,” it was promised. “will be present to denounce the latest atrocious act of the police – the shooting of our fellow workmen yesterday afternoon.”
In response to this invitation 1,400 men, including those most active in the Anarchist riots of the past 48 hours, gathered at the point designated. At Des Plaines-street, Randolph street which runs east and west, widens out and is known as the Old Haymarket. The plaza thus formed is about 2,900 feet long and 150 feet wide. It was just off the Northeastern corner into Des Plaines street. 110 feet north of Randolph, that the crowd gathered. A light rainstorm came up and about 800 people went away. The 600 who remained listened to speeches from the lips of August Spies, the editor of the Arbiter Zellung, and A.B. Parsons, an Anarchist leader, mounted the wagon from which the orators spoke the crowd pressed nearer, knowing that something different was coming.
They were not disappointed. Fielden spoke for 20 minutes, growing wilder and more violent as he proceeded. Police Inspector Bonfield had heard the early part of the speech and walking down the street to the Des Plaines street police station not 300 feet south of where Fielden stood, called out a reserve of 60 policemen and started them up the street toward the crowd. The men were formed in two lines stretching from curb to curb. The Inspector hurried on ahead and forcing his way through the crowd, reached a point close to the wagon. Fielden had just uttered an incendiary sentence when Bonfield cried:
“I command you in the name of the law to desist, and you,” turning to the crowd, to disperse.”
Just as he began to speak the stars on the broad breasts of the blue coats, as they came marching down the street so quietly that they had not been heard, reflected the rags of light from the neighboring street lamp. From a little group of men standing at the entrance to an alley opening on Des Plaines street opposite where Fielden was speaking something rose up into the air, carrying with it a slender tail of fire, squarely in front of the advancing line of policemen. It struck and sputtered mildly for a moment. Then, as they were so close to it that the nearest man could have stepped upon the thing it exploded with terrific effect.
The men in the centre of the line went down with shrieks and groans dying together. Then from the Anarchists on every side a deadly fire was pured in on the stricken lines of police and more men fell to the ground. At the discharge of the bomb the bystanders on the sidewalk fled for their lives and numbers were trampled upon in the mad haste of the crowd to get away. The groans of those hit could be heard above the rattle of the revolvers as the police answered the fire of the rioters with deadly effect. In two minutes the ground was strewn with wounded men. Then the shots straggled and soon after all was quiet and the police were masters of the situation.
The situation was appalling in the extreme. The ground was covered with the bodies of men writhing in agony and apparently dying. The men who were uninjured were ministering to their comrades as best they could and as soon as possible the wounded were removed to the station house. The first death was that of Officer Joseph Deegan, who rose from the ground where he was thrown by the explosion, walked a hundred feet toward the station house and dropping down, expired. All around within a radius of a block of the field of battle men were seen limping into drug stores and saloons or crawling on their hands their legs being disabled. Others tottered along the street like drunken men, holding their hands to their heads and calling for help to take them home. The open doorways and saloons in the immediate vicinity were crowded with men. Some jumped over tables and chairs, barricading themselves behind them; others crouched behind the walls, counters, doorways, and empty barrels. For a few minutes after the shooting nobody ventured out on the street.
A hospital was hastily improvised in the squad room at the station house and thither the wounded were carried by tender hands. The room presented a harrowing sight. Half a dozen men from whom the blood literally flowed in streams, were stretched upon the floor. Others were laid out on tables and benches and others not so badly wounded were placed in chairs to await, with what patience they could, the assistance of the surgeon. Mattresses and other bedding were dragged down stairs, and dozens of willing hands did their utmost to assuage the pain of the sufferers. Very soon the doctors were busy with needle lancet and probe. Priests passed from one wounded man to another administering brief words of consolation and hope and the sacrament of extreme unction to others. Officers and volunteer assistants went around with stimulants or helped to bind up wounds or held the patient down while the Surgeon was at work or carried some of the wounded to the other apartments, or in some other way did what could be done to help in easing pain or saving life. Pools of blood formed on the floor and was tramped about until almost every foot of space was red and slippery.
The groans of the dying men arose above the heavy shuffling of feet, and , to add to the agony, the cries of women, relatives of officers reported to have been wounded, could be heard from an outer room, beyond which the women were not permitted to enter. Men who had only got a foot or an arm wounded even though the blood poured from it in streams, sat still claiming no help in the face of the greater agony. “O Christ! Let me die!” “O merciful God!” and similar expressions were continually wrung forth as the surgeons knife or saw, was at work or when attempts were made to move those more badly wounded. The sacrament of extreme unction was administered to eight of the wounded before they were moved from the spot where they had been first laid.
As the bodies were picked up from the ground it was found that one man, an unknown Bohemian, was dead, making with Officer Deegan, two victims already of the crime. The following is a partial list of the 33 injured policemen. It is impossible to say at this hour (1:15 A.M.) how many will die, but it is believed that the number will be nearly if not quite a dozen.
Joseph Deegan, West Lake street station; fell dead in front of the Desplaines street station in the arms of Detective John McDonald. He had sufficient vitality to walk from the scene of the shooting to the spot where he expired.
Lieut. James Stanton, West Lake street station; shot in both legs; not badly hurt.
Jacob Hansen, West Lake street station; shot in both legs.
Thomas Shannon, Desplaines street station; shot in foot, leg and arms; married and has three children.
John K. McMahon, West Chicago avenue; shot in thigh and calf of right leg; married and has three children.
John E. Doyle, Desplaines street , bomb wounds leg, knee and back; married and has one child.
Timothy Flavin, Ranson street station; shot in leg; resides at station; married.
John H. King, Desplaines street station; bomb wound in neck, feet and arms.
James Plunkett, Desplaines street station; shot in the hand.
Edward Barrett, West Chicago avenue; shot in knee and ankle; has wife and six children.
J. Simons, West Chicago avenue; shit in side; has wife and two children.
A.C. Keller, Desplaines street station; shot in side.
L.J. Murphy, Desplaines street; shot in neck and hand; foot hurt by bomb; married.
T. Butterfly, West Lake street; ;shot in hand; has wife and one child.
H.T. Smith, Desplaines street; shot in the right ankle; single.
Arthur Conley, Desplaines street; bullet wound in leg and right shoulder and bomb wound in right leg; married.
C. Whitney, West Lake street; wounded in the breast by a bomb; married.
Lieut. Bowler, who was in charge of the Second Company of 24 men, said: “Every man in my company is wounded, with only three exceptions. I led the company up to the wagon from which the speeches were being made. Inspector Bonfield and Capt. Ward were immediately in front of me. The Inspector told Fielden they would have to stop as he had orders to disperse the meeting. As he finished speaking a bomb was thrown from the wagon and fell directly in the centre of my company, where it exploded.”
“Are you positive the bomb was thrown from that wagon?”
“Yes, I am. I could make no mistake about it for I saw it thrown. Officers Heid and Doyle were knocked down by it. Bonfield, Ward, and myself wore the only three to escape. Every one behind me was wounded- just mowed down.”
Several of the men listening to Fielden had their revolvers in their hands under their coats, and were prepared for an attack. These drifted around to the northern end of the crowd, where the street was much darker. The windows of the brick building in the northeastern cotner of Randolph and Desplaines streets were filled with the heads and faces of men and women. One of the wounded officers says he saw the bomb coming from one of these windows. Officer Marx said he saw the bomb coming from the wagon in which the speaders stood. It is probable that both of the officers were mistaken and that the bomb cam from the sidewalk.
When the first shots wee fired most of the crowd scampered east and west in Randolph street. The bullets followed the fleeing ones and many of them dropped on the way before they for out of danger. A number of women were also seen in the crowd and several scampered screaming down Randolph street. More were seen falling 500 and 600 feet up Randolph street, west of Desplaines. Hats were lost and several, stopping to pick something they had dropped, were trampled on by the mad mob. In the neighboring stores everything was confusion. Men in their haste to get away from the bullers broke open the doors of the stores and entered, hiding in the first convenient place they could find. The proprietors struck at the intruders with clubs and threatened them with pistols, but they pushed past these and entered
The feeling among the police when they fully realized the extent of the calamity which had befallen their comrades rose to a frenzy, and nothing but the discipline among them and the presence of Inspector Bonfield, who was one of the very few cool men in the station, prevented their rushing out and taking summary vengeance on the crowds of loiterers on the sidewalks, who jeered the flying patrol wagons as they passed filled with officers on the way to the scene of the disaster. The cruel heartlessness of the men who exulted over the fact that more than a score of policemen had fallen victims to the deadly Nihilist bomb surpasses belief, and yet it is a fact that crowded along the sidewalks on both sides of Desplaines street from Madison street to the station were hundreds of Community sympathizers who exulted in the flendian work which had been perpetrated but a few moments before. The big bell in the police station tower had tolled out a riot alarm, while the telegrapher sent dispatches to other stations calling for aid. Ten minutes later patrol wagons were dashing toward the scene of the riot from all directions, bringing stalwart policemen. The mob shouted wildly as the wagons dashed by, and several missiles were thrown, all of which missed the bluecoats on the wagons. The Anarchists slunk back as a large company of policemen on foot marched down Desplaines street.
Several times the mob advaced with wild shouts from the north, but they were kept back as far as Randolph street. The Anarchists led by two wiry, whiskered foreigners grew bolder and made several attempts to renew the attack, but the police stood their ground. At 11:30 o’clock the plice made a grand drive at the mob, which was growing larger instead of diminishing. Blank cartridges were fired from hundreds of revolvers in two volleys, which set the crowd flying in all directions. The police gave chase as far as as the Lyceum Theatre, firing again, and the crowd covering Madison street from curb to curb, did not stop running until Halstead street was passed. This fusillade from the officers pratically dispersed the mob, and at 11:45 there were few people in the streets near the station.
The celerity with which the leaders of the dynamite movement for out of the way as soon as the explosion occurred was little short of marvelous and this fact led man to believe that they had knowledge of what was to be done and therefore took occasion to escape the consequences they knew would follow.
As soon as the superior officers could collect their wits orders were at once issues for the arrest of the dynamite orators and they therefore, will be behind the bars as soon as the detectives can get hold of them. Some said that when persons in the mob fell to the ground their friends picked them up and carried them away. It is therefore impossible to give any estimate of the number of citizens shot. That the number is large there can be no doubt, and that some were fatally wounded, if not killed outright, is more than probable. Fifteen persons were picked up by the police, and one or two of these will, in all probability, die. The people injured are in the main men who were on their way home from a cheap theatre, where the performance had come to an end early. Among them are the following:
Robert Shults, a waiter, on his way home from the theatre: shot in the leg.
John Sachman, who was walking in Randolph street: shot in the leg.
Frank Wrovsch, shot in the shoulder and sides and will die.
Charles Shoemaker, tailor: shot in back.
Emil Goltz, shoemaker; shot in shoulder.
Joseph Kucher; shot in back.
John Edlund; shot in head.
Peter Ley; shot in the back.
B. Le Plant, of Earl Park, Ind.; on his way home from the theatre; shot in the leg and shoulder.
It should be borne in mind that the men who were present at the Anarchist meeting were with few exceptions, fellows with no visible means of support and professional agitators. They were not there to right any specific wrong, but to listen to wild harangues, such as they hear upon the lake front and in the Anarchist halls on Sunday. The meeting was of precisely the same nature as those held Sundays, differing only from the usual gatherings in that it was held in the night instead of the day time. The street where the meeting was held was narrow, but the crowd was gathered very compactly. Everything points to a preconcerted plan on the part of Spies, Parsons, and Fielden to try the effect of one of their bombs. The speeches were planned to rouse the mob gradually to a point where police interference could reasonably be hoped for and then a man, screened by others, at the end of a convenient dark alley, down which he could run, was detailed to throw a bomb when the proper time came.
This evening 200 Bohemian sausage makers at Armour’s left the establishment and marched down to Ashland avenue, carrying red flags, beating drums, and shouting “Down with the police.” They paraded around all night and about 11 o’clock reached the corner of Forty-eighth and Laflin streets. Officers Doran, McManus and J. W. Murphy of the town of Lake, were met and the mob commenced to beat them, when Officer McManus drew his revolver and fired. Matthew Blank, one of the strikers, ran a few yards and then dropped dead.
Chicago, May 5-2 A.M. Inspector Bonfield has hust been seen at the Desplaines street stateion and says concerning tonights trouble in the old Hay market: After Parsons concluded his speech Sam Fielding, another notorious Socialist, mnounted the wagon and began to address the crowd. His words were of the most inflammatory description. He called on the men to arm themselves and assert their rights. He finally became so violent that word was sent to the station, which was only a block distant, and Inspector Donfield, at the head of 125 men, marched to the place where the meeting was in progress. Bonfield called upon the crowd to disperse, and Fielding shouted out to them from the wagon: “To arsm!” The officer once more called on them to disperse, when suddenly from behind the wagon, which was not 15 feet from the front rank of the police, bombs were thrown in between the second and third ranks of the men, with the effect as already about an hour ago, proved to be nothing of consequence. No one was hurt.
On a table in the station house where the wounded policemen are one poor fellow lies stretched on a table with terrible bullet wounds in his breast. A few feer distant a man with tattered clothes and a mortal wound in his side is lying insensible on a cot. Around the chairs, with their legs bandaged up and resting on supports of different kinds, are some 15 or 20 of the officers who were wounded by the bombs. Not a groan or complaint is heard from any of them. Another officer, who was found lying in a doorway where he had been carried, or where he had dragged himself has just been brought in, frightfully wounded. There are some 20 of the Socialists in the cells in the basement. Nearly all of them are wounded and one of them , a young fellow of about 20, is dead.
Forewarnings of Trouble
Chicago, May 4. –The first trouble of the day was at Armour’s glue factory, in Ashland avenue, near Thirty-fifth street. The 200 men, employed there struck yesterday and this morning there was nobody in the factory save the Superintendent. The workmen, with a crowd of 400 Anarchists and strikers in other factories, gathered in the neighborhood of the buildings armed with pick handles and clubs, and prepared to raid the factory. The Superintendent telephoned the police for help, and in a few moments two patrol wagons loaded with blue coats dashed up. Most of the, would be rioters scattered. Those who stood their found were vigorously clubbed, and four of them all young men, all Germans, and all known as virulent Anarchists, were arrested. August Meyer, one of the four, spent yesterday stirring up the mob which later in the day raided McCormick’s works.
At noon a crowd of 500 strikers from the lumber yards gathered at Centre avenue and Eighteenth street, and after listening to wild speeches started out to raid a paint factory two blocks away. The men in the factory, who were working under the protection of four special policemen, were forced to throw down their tools and join the mob. Then the crowd turned on the watchmen, who ran, one of them emptying his revolver at his pursuers, but without effect. Returning to the starting point the mob listened to more speeches, drank a good deal of beer, and were soon engaged in free flights without number. All were armed with revolvers and the shots began to fly, when Officers Small and Kilgalen and Detective Michael Granger tried to arrest one Joseph Wallack for disorderly conduct. Small had the prisoner and the crowd made a rush on him. One fellow thrust his revolver into the officer’s face and was about to pull the trigger when Detective Granger knocked his hand up and arrested him. Then the detective went down under a brick thrown by a skillful hand, which laid open his scalp but did not seriously wound him. Small gave his prisoner to Kilgalen, and, with two revolvers in his hand fought his way to the nearest patrol box with bullets whizzing around his head and summoned help. Three patrol wagons, loaded with police dashed up and the crowd scattered, leaving seven of their number in the hands of the officers.
At the Railroad Switches
Chicago, May 4 –All the railroads were able to handle freight after a fashion to day, through none of the striking freight handlers returned to work and their number was augmented during the day. About 200 men worked all day in the Milwaukee and St. Paul Depots. The Burlington sent frequent appeals to the police for help and seemed to be in about as bad shape as any of the roads. Its cars run in over the Fort Wayne tracks and the switchmen in the Fort Wayne yards today refused to throw any switches for cars not loaded by the regular freight handlers. This determination, it is reported, is similar to that which all other switchmen in the city will come to, and should that course be adopted it would seriously complicate matters. With the aid of office men and laborers the roads are able to handle freight without much delay, and claim that as soon as the new men are broken in they can transact business as usual. But with the switchmen up in arms against them freight, even if loaded, could not be moved. The teamsters drawing freight t the depots are in the mafia in sympathy with the strikers and throw all the obstacles they can in the way of new men. One of the strikers met Freight Solicitor Harmon, of the Burlington, in the street this afternoon and knocked him senseless with a blow of his fist.
The railroad managers held another meeting today, at which every road running into the city was represented. The action of yesterday, by which the road determined not to accede to the demands of the strikers, was reaffirmed. The managers, despite their bold stand, are very nervous and fear the extension of the strike.
The Baltimore and Ohio freight handlers made a request of the officials for an increaseof wages to $1.75 a day. The request was forwarded to headquarters at Baltimore, and the men will wait for an answer until Friday. The sentiment of a majority of them is against a strike.
The Michigan Central men resolved to wait until Wednesday for a definite reply to their demands. This action was taken after the local agent had informed them that the company was not prepared to give an answer, but was silling to pay as much as other roads.
The Illinois Central freight handlers listened to an address from General Superintendent Jeffrey, in which he said it was impracticable for the road to grant eight hours. The men conferred a few minutes and decided to quit work, which they did. They express a determination to stay out until they have secured their demands.
This morning 600 striking employees of the new gas company marched t the centre of the city from the south side. At Harrison street and Wabash avenue they split up in two gangs, one going to the north side and the second one, numbering fully 200, going to Adams street and Wabash avenue in laying tracks for the Chicago City Passenger Railway. The gas men compelled the track layers to throw down their tools, put on their coats and hats, and stop work.
Judge Gresham formally refused today to make any order appointing special Deputy Marshals to protect the property of the Wabash Railroad. He had another conference wit Mr. Railroad. He had another conference with Mr. W.J. Durham, who represented the road, late in the afternoon, and told him that he wanted better evidence that the Receivers were making the application. It looked very strange that one of them should be in New York and the other in St. Louis when there was trouble on their line in Chicago, and if they desired him to make any order or help them out of any trouble they must come here and make the application personally. Until that was done he would refuse to do anything in the matter.
Anarchists Called to Arms.
Chicago, May 4. - The Arbeiter Zeitung of today, edited by August Spies, the most viscous of the local Anarchist teachers, has the following remarkable editorial:
“Blood has flowed. It had to be and it was. Not in vain has order drilled and trained its bloodhounds. It was not for fun that the militia was practiced in street fighting. The robbers who know best of all what wretches they are who pile up their money through the misery of the masses, who make a trade of the slow murder of the families of workingmen are the last ones to stop short at the direct shooting down of workingmen. Down wit the Canaille’s is their motto. Is it not historically proved that private property grows out of all sorts of violence? Are these capitalistic robbers to be allowed by the canaille-by the working classes – to continue their bloody orgies, with horrid murders? Never? The war of classes is at hand. Yesterday workingmen were shot down in front of McCormick’s factory whose blood cries out for revenge. Who will deny that the tigers who rule us are greedy for the blood of the workingman? * * * But the workingmen are not sheep and will reply to the white terror with the red terror.
“Do you know what that means? You soon will know. Modesty is a crime on the part of workingmen, and can anything be more modest than this eight hour demand? It was asked for peacefully a year ago, so as to give the spoils men a chance to reply to it. The answer is, drilling of the police and militia, regulations of the workingmen seeking to introduce the eight hour system, and yesterday blood flowed. This is the way in which these devils answer the modest prayer of their slaves. Sooner death than life in misery. If workingmen are to be shot at, let us answer in such a way that the robbers will not soon forget it. The murderous capitalistic beasts have been made drunk by the smoking blood of our workingmen. The tiger is crouching for a spring; it’s eyes glare murderously; it moves its tail impatiently and all its muscles are tense. Absolute necessity forces the cry to arms! To arms! If you do not defend yourselves you will be torn and mutilated by the fangs of the beast. The new yoke which awaits you in case of a cowardly retreat is harder and heavier than the bitter yoke of your present slavery.
“All the powers opposed to labor have united. They see their common interest. In such days as these all else must be subordinate to the one thought- how can these wealthy robbers and their hired bands of murderers be made harmless? * * * Shabbily dressed women and children in miserable huts wept for husbands and fathers yesterday. In palaces they still fill goblets with costly wine and pledge the health of the bloody banditti of order. Dry your tears ye poor and suffering! Take heart, ye slaves! Rise in your might and level the existing robber rule with the dust. The heroes of the club yesterday pounded brutally with their clubs a number of girls, many of whom were mere children. Whose blood does not course more swiftly through his veins when he hears of this outrage? Whoever is a man must show it today. Men, to the front!”
Many Industries Paralyzed
Chicago May 4. – A conference was held at the Lumbermen’s Committee and a delegation of the striking employees. The special business of the delegation was to get the reply of the lumbermen to the circular of Friday. John Schmidt, a member of the delegation, said to a reporter as he came from the meeting: “They weren’t to starve us. We told them that if we didn’t cull the lumber they could not sell it, and they said they would cull it and sell it in spite of us. Well, if we cannot cull and sort it they cannot sell it, and I tell you we are not going to starve. We will sell it ourselves first, or, if we cannot do that, we can burn it.”
Secretary Hotchkiss, of the Lumbermen’s Association, chanced to overhear the latter part of the remark, and followed the man to the street where he requested a policeman to arrest him, and Schmidt was locked up for disorderly conduct. The Exchange voted to present to the Grand Jury the names of any persons found intimidating their employees and to prosecute them at the expense of the organization. It also voted not to treat with any union in the matter of taking back strikers, but with the men individually.
The outcome of the trouble with the lumbermen is watched with no small degree of anxiety. At present appearances are threatening. Directly and indirectly at least 20,000 men, most of them with families to support, are dependent upon the lumber dealers business in this city. The wages paid by Chicago lumber dealers and planning mill owners are larger for the same grade of men than are paid by any other Chicago industry. The majority of the men are wholly unskilled. Even a knowledge of the English language is not required. But $1 per day has been paid men newly arrived with a chance of early promotion and higher wages. By persisting in their demands the men were menacing the lumber business of the port. But persist the men did until the lumber dealers said that they would like to see the men go back to work on the old basis and hoped they would do so, but if not their places would be filled as speedily as possible.
No serious trouble occurred at the McCormick works. A fair-sized force of police, under Lieut. Sheppard, was on hand ready to quell any disturbance that might arise. Fifty of them stood opposite the factory and as many more patrolled the vicinity. There were several attempts near the works to organize mobs, but the sight of the blue coats brought terror to the hearts of the Anarchists, and caused them to cease their attempts. Somewhere in the neighborhood of 300 men went to work in the factory, the others staying at home through fear. Several inmates of the hotel in front of the works had exceedingly narrow escapes Monday afternoon, and it is known that at least four men besides Votjek, who is still alive, were wounded. A number of policemen were badly bruised.
The vessel business of Chicago is nearly paralyzed by the strike. Many loaded vessels are lying in the harbor unable to get rid of their cargoes, and the lumber yards all along the bank of the river are as deserted as on Sunday.
The great army of idle operatives increases every hour. Where employees will not consent to the short day the men invariably drop their tools and leave the shops in a body with fires burning in the forges. At the Union Steel Company’s works the manager said that it was simply impossible to run an eight hour schedule, but he offered instead to increase the pay of the men from $1.25 to $1.40 for 10 hours’ work. This offer was refused on the spot and the men walked our of the works.
The North Side Rolling Mills have shut down for an indefinite period, and about 1,000 men are thrown out of employment. The Superintendent said that in all probability the mills would not start up again until the labor troubles were at an end. The company could not give ten hours’ pay for eight hours’ work, and to shut down was the only course open.
Not a wheel was turned in the mills of the Calumet Iron and Steel Company, at Cummings, yesterday. Superintendent McCloud posted a notice that the mills, with the exception of the nail department, would be closed. The following notice was circulated in the streets of Cummings:
All friends of labor are hereby requested to keep out of the employ of the Calumet Iron and Steel Company.
By order Knights of Labor Local Assembly No. 1,757.
The shutting down of this mill will throw 650 men out of employment.
Many of the packing houses have yielded to the demands of the men rather than bother with a strike. At a monster mass meeting of packing house employees’ committees reported that Armour, Fowlser, Swift, Moran & Healy, Morril, Ferguson, Silberhorn, Washington Butchers’ Sons, Botsford, Libby, McNeil & Libby, Jones & Stiles, and Atchison will hereafter allow ten hours’ pay for eight hours’ work. Nelson Morris will allow nine hours’ pay for all employees getting over $2 per day, and will reduce the $2 men. Hately Brothers agreed to allow nine hours’ pay for eight hours’ work for skilled labor, but wanted to reduce the unskilled workmen. This was objected to by the committee waiting upon them. It is expected, however, that this firm will fall into line with the others. Underwood’s packing house will allow nine hours’ pay for eight hours’ work. Kent’s house allows nine and ten hours’ pay for eight hours’ work, with no men reduced.
Metal workers who have been trying to run their shops on the eight hour system, having conceded the demands of their men, today gave the movement the most serious setback, it has yet suffered by voting to return to 10 hours. Sixty foundry men, boil makers’ and manufacturers held a meeting today, at which R. T. Crane presided, and organized the Metal Manufacturers’ Association of Chicago. The following, which will be signed and posted in the factories tomorrow morning, was adopted:
“It is the sense of the meeting of the metal workers that, in consequence of the eight hour movement not being extended throughout the country, it is not practicable to run our works on eight hours’ time and that we will close on or before next Saturday night to reopen on 10 hours.”